Artillery Organization

Tactics and Combat in the Napoleonic Wars.

The word 'artillery' originated in the Middle Ages, it comes from the Old French atellier meaning "to arrange". The combining of shot and powder into a single unit occurred in early 1600s. The use of the word "cannon" marks the introduction in the 15th century of a field carriage with axle, trail and animal-drawn limber. The reduction in the size of the barrel was due to improvements in both iron technology and gunpowder manufacture.

By late 14th AD, the Chinese used artillery and cavalry to push Mongols out. The Chinese established the "Divine Engine Division" - specialized in various types of artillery. When in 1430 Joan d'Arc led the assault on Paris, she faced stiff artillery fire. The artillery revolution in Europe caught on during the Hundred Years War and changed the way that battles were fought.

Artillery equipment owes its development to scientific advances and has become formidable. Since the cannon was both the first and the last reckoning of war, the artillery service from 1800 enjoyed great importance on the battlefield.

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Keywords: Artillery, Napoleonic, Tactics, Organization, Fieldworks, Redoubts



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