The myth of the motte and bailey castle in Scotland
An assessment of medieval earthwork fortifications in Scotland and their relationship to traditional Anglo-Norman motte and bailey castles, and earlier Scottish sites....
Johann Pleitner was born in Nabburg (Bavaria-Ober Pfalz in Germany) to a well-off bourgeoise family.He studied as a young boy in a private school of mathematics and calligraphy in nearby Nuremberg run by local famous astronomer and mathematician Johannes Kurz. There he also studied land surveying. He probably studied the art of fortification and mathematics at the University in Louvain in Belgium. At the age of 32 he joined Dutch forces of the stadholder of Holland, prince Frederick Hendrick of Nassau at the siege of Maastricht against the Spaniards in 1632. There he prepared drawings and plans for big etching by Salomon Savery of the famous siege.
The following year he was recruited by the Polish army, which was relieving Smolensk from Russian siege. There he commanded a special 600-man regiment of sappers, which destroyed enemy works and built its own field fortifications. In the meantime he prepared drawings and plans for the next two big etching by Salomon Savery and Willem Hondius depicting the Smolensk relief. After those long battles, which showed his mastership in fortification and engineering, he was sent to Royal Prussia to fortify and built Wladyslawowo (Vladislausburg) and Kazimierzowo (Casimirschanz) on the Baltic coast and update older fortifications in Grudziadz (Graudenz), Tczew (Dirschau), Torun (Thorn) and Malbork (Marienburg) to prepare for expected war with Sweden.
Author: Jerzy Czajewski
Article and Image Source: fortified-places.com
Keywords: Johann Pleitner,Military Engineer,Fortifications,Military Architecture