The myth of the motte and bailey castle in Scotland
An assessment of medieval earthwork fortifications in Scotland and their relationship to traditional Anglo-Norman motte and bailey castles, and earlier Scottish sites....
In the center of St.-Petersburg, on the small island of the river Neva, the stone walls of the Peter and Paul Fortress were the first construction of the city.
The Peter and Paul Fortress was founded during Northern war with Sweden (1700-1721). The war was waged for returning Nevskiy and Baltic grounds (originally Russian) grasped by Sweden in the beginning of XVII century. These grounds were a part of possession of Great Novgorod, in IX century a part of a great way " from varjags to Greeks " stretched there. Absence of exit to Baltic sea hampered the development of economy of Russian state, and also necessary political, trading and cultural communications with the countries of the Western Europe.
In the beginning of XVIII century returning of the Baltic coast became historical necessity for Russian state.
The Northern war begun for Russia unsuccessfully: near Narva in 1700 Russian army was defeated. But failures did not stop Peter 1 perfectly understanding historical necessity of the returning of exit to the sea.
Article and Image Source: http://ruhistory.narod.ru
Keywords: Fortifications,Baltic,Russia,Peter and Paul
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