The Early Effects of Gunpowder on Fortress Design
The introduction of gunpowder did not immediately transform the battlefields of Europe....
The Saint-Louis forts and châteaux site is complex. It consists of three elements: the forts, châteaux and gardens.There were a total of four forts and two Châteaux. After the last Château burned, the ruins gave way to three successive terraces.
The first fort to occupy the top of the cliff at Quebec City was the one Champlain constructed in 1620. It consisted of a few wooden buildings surrounded by a palisade. Champlain began expanding his facilities in 1626. This second fort was surrounded by ramparts of wood and soil. The third fort was constructed in 1636 by Charles Huault de Montmagny, who covered the second fort's earthen ramparts with stonework. Construction lasted 24 years, finishing in 1660.Governor Frontenac undertook in 1692 construction of the fourth Saint-Louis fort following admiral Phips' siege of Quebec. The enceinte was completed in 1693 and would not change until 1759, when the British army once again attacked Quebec. From the late 1680s to the end of the French regime, the Saint-Louis fort sheltered a small garrison of at most 25 men as well as the governor's personal guard of 17 soldiers. In 1762, governor Murray indicated that the Saint-Louis fort no longer had a defensive value. It was therefore not strengthened. Only the part overlooking the cliff was stabilized.
Author: Parks Canada
Article and Image Source: http://www.pc.gc.ca
Keywords: Saint Louis, Fortifications, Canada