The Early Effects of Gunpowder on Fortress Design
The introduction of gunpowder did not immediately transform the battlefields of Europe....
Inside Marsamxett harbour lies a small leaf-shaped island once known as the Isoletto. Its strategic value emerged with the construction of Valletta on Mount Sciberras, when the threat it posed to the western flanks of the new city began to feature prominently in the engineers’ reports.
The town fortifications, ramparts and towers outside the walls were built, reinforced and reconstructed in the period from the 12th to the second half of the 17th century.
The site is located on the south-eastern edge of Kilkenny city on the southern bank of the Nore River.